Hyperparasitoids of aphids

Parasites of parasites, insects of the order Hymenoptera

Hyperparasitoids can be divided into secondary parasitoids when they develop at the expense of a primary parasitoid, or tertiary ones when the host is itself a hyperparasitoid. In this strategy, two options are possible. Either the tertiary hyperparasitoid parasitizes an individual of its own species (auto-hyperparasitism) or it develops by taking advantage of different species other than its own (allo-hyperparasitism). Instances of even a fourth level can occur but these are very difficult to observe.

Classification of principal hyperparasitoids


Chalcicoïdea (Superfamily):

○ Pteromalidae (Family) :

  - Asaphinae (Subfamily) : 

 - Pteromalinae :

  • Pachyneuron sp.
  • Coruna sp.
  • Euneura sp.

○ Encyrtidae

  - Encyrtinae :  

  • Syrphophagus sp.

○ Eulophidae

  - Tetrastichinae

  • Tetrastichus sp

Ceraphronoïdea : 

○ Megaspilidae :

Cynipoïdea :

○ Charipidae : 

  - Alloxystinae

  • Alloxysta sp.
  • Phaenoglyphis sp.

The Alloxysta are koinobiont endoparasitoids: they lay their egg on aphids parasitized but still alive. The Asaphes and Dendrocerus are idiobiont ectoparasitoids: they lay the egg on aphid mummies. As for Syrphophagus, they are koinobiont endoparasitoids on parasitized yet living aphids and on their mummified forms.

jeune larve d'hyperparasitoïde
larve d'hyperparasitoïde




Modification date : 17 April 2024 | Publication date : 06 February 2012 | Redactor : Evelyne Turpeau, Maurice Hullé, Bernard Chaubet