Hyperparasitoids

Hyperparasitoids of aphids

Parasites of parasites, insects of the order Hymenoptera

Hyperparasitoids can be divided into secondary parasitoids when they develop at the expense of a primary parasitoid, or tertiary ones when the host is itself a hyperparasitoid. In this strategy, two options are possible. Either the tertiary hyperparasitoid parasitizes an individual of its own species (auto-hyperparasitism) or it develops by taking advantage of different species other than its own (allo-hyperparasitism). Instances of even a fourth level can occur but these are very difficult to observe.

Classification of principal hyperparasitoids

PARASITICA (SUB-ORDER) : 

Chalcicoïdea (Superfamily):

○ Pteromalidae (Family) :

  - Asaphinae (Subfamily) : 

 - Pteromalinae :

  • Pachyneuron sp.
  • Coruna sp.
  • Euneura sp.

○ Encyrtidae

  - Encyrtinae :  

  • Syrphophagus sp.

○ Eulophidae

  - Tetrastichinae

  • Tetrastichus sp

Ceraphronoïdea : 

○ Megaspilidae :

Cynipoïdea :

○ Charipidae : 

  - Alloxystinae

  • Alloxysta sp.
  • Phaenoglyphis sp.

The Alloxysta are koinobiont endoparasitoids: they lay their egg on aphids parasitized but still alive. The Asaphes and Dendrocerus are idiobiont ectoparasitoids: they lay the egg on aphid mummies. As for Syrphophagus, they are koinobiont endoparasitoids on parasitized yet living aphids and on their mummified forms.

 

 

 
 

Modification date : 17 April 2024 | Publication date : 06 February 2012 | Redactor : Evelyne Turpeau, Maurice Hullé, Bernard Chaubet